ECOS
ECOS
Water
Waste
Wastewater
Resource Efficiency
Licences & Permits

Wastewater: Activated Sludge – Pinfloc

Pin-floc in activated sludge may be defined as very fine floc particles with poor settling characteristics. Pin-floc/deflocculation may be assessed through visual observation: Carryover of very fine material in final effluent Turbid or milky appearance of final effluent Bacterial flocs have disintegrated into tiny ‘pinhead sized’ particles; Filaments not predominant (microscopic examination) Settleability test may...

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Simple Guide to Pollution Prevention for Businesses

Everybody has heard of major environmental disasters and the legal, public relation and financial costs to high profile business, right!! Less well known are the easily avoidable environmental issues applicable to all types of business, be they SMEs or large Multi-National Companies, which add significant cost to businesses every year. Hands Up which businesses would...

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When is a licence to discharge wastewater needed?

The Water Pollution Act (1977) defined a ‘trade effluent’ as an effluent, “which is discharged from premises used for carrying on any trade or industry (including mining) but does not include domestic sewage or storm water”. All ‘trade effluents’ must be licensed. Discharges of domestic-type wastewater (sewage) from commercial and industrial premises to municipal sewers...

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