Effluent refers to liquid wastes that are released from various sources, such as industrial plants, sewage treatment plants, and agricultural operations. These liquid wastes can contain a wide range of pollutants, including heavy metals, chemicals, pathogens, and organic matter. Effluent can also contain nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which can lead to eutrophication in water bodies if they are not properly treated before discharge.

Effluent discharge can have significant negative impacts on the environment and human health. When effluent enters water bodies, it can harm aquatic life and contaminate drinking water sources. In addition, the release of untreated or poorly treated effluent can contribute to the spread of diseases and other health problems. Therefore, proper management and treatment of effluent is crucial to protect the environment and human health. This may involve using advanced treatment technologies, implementing regulatory frameworks, and promoting sustainable practices to minimize effluent generation.