PM2.5, also known as fine particulate matter, refers to tiny particles that measure less than 2.5 microns in diameter. These particles can come from a variety of sources, including industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, and natural sources like wildfires and dust storms. Due to their small size, PM2.5 particles can easily penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, causing a wide range of health problems such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and premature death. PM2.5 is considered one of the most harmful air pollutants and is closely monitored by government agencies worldwide. Exposure to PM2.5 is especially dangerous for vulnerable populations such as children, elderly individuals, and those with pre-existing health conditions. Reducing PM2.5 levels through emissions regulations and air quality management measures is critical for protecting public health and the environment.