Municipal waste, as defined in the Waste Management Act 1996, refers to the waste material that primarily originates from households, as well as waste from commercial, institutional, or industrial activities that share similarities in nature and composition with household waste. This includes, but is not limited to, items such as food waste, packaging materials, paper, cardboard, textiles, electronic waste, and various forms of plastic.
Municipal waste often encompasses both solid and semi-solid substances, and typically excludes hazardous waste, medical waste, and certain industrial byproducts. The management of municipal waste is crucial for public health, environmental sustainability, and resource conservation, as it involves waste collection, transportation, processing, recycling, treatment, and disposal. Local authorities or municipal bodies are responsible for the organization and oversight of municipal waste management, working towards minimizing waste generation, encouraging recycling and reuse, and ensuring environmentally sound disposal methods.