In an aquatic context, fouling refers to the accumulation of unwanted substances on surfaces that are exposed to water. This can include not only boats and marine structures, but also pipes, water treatment facilities, and other submerged or partially submerged surfaces. Fouling can be caused by a variety of factors, including microbial growth, algae, and sediment accumulation. This can lead to increased resistance to water flow, reduced efficiency of equipment, and increased susceptibility to corrosion and damage. Effective fouling management strategies can help prevent these negative effects and ensure the proper functioning of aquatic structures and equipment.